Replacing an engine - the procedure for registration with the traffic police and everything about reconciling engine numbers

Is it necessary to register an engine replacement with the traffic police in 2021?

On January 20, 2011, in the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the engine was recognized as an unnumbered part and its registration with the MREO of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate was canceled. The number of the installed engine is no longer indicated in the vehicle registration certificate as information that is not particularly important. However, this policy has made the job of police officers involved in car theft investigations more difficult. From the Administrative Regulations of the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia N 950 on the procedure for registering vehicles, it follows that government agencies may refuse to register a vehicle if signs of changes in the identification numbers of components and assemblies are detected, including the engine, with the exception of vehicles with a change in marking as a result of natural wear and tear and repairs.

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At first, it seems that it is not difficult to figure out when it is worth undergoing the procedure and when it can be avoided. from the Order that in 2021, state registration of an engine replacement with the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate is not required if a similar motor (power, design, volume, etc.) was installed due to repairs; and state registration is required if an engine with characteristics different from the previous version is supplied.

The catch is that local executive bodies interpreted this provision of the law differently. The fact is clear to everyone that it is possible to install a motor with new parameters only after coordinating the action with the traffic police and subsequently registering the replacement. But local executive authorities decided differently what to do with the installation of a new engine with similar parameters. In one region of the Russian Federation they will not pay attention to replacing an engine similar to the previous one, but in another they will be asked to take steps to coordinate the changes and their further registration.

You can find out whether it is necessary to register a new engine completely similar to the old one via the traffic police MREO hotline. However, even when receiving verbal permission to replace a spare part without subsequent registration, it is worth keeping in mind that in the future the owner of the car may move to another subject of the Russian Federation or find a buyer from another Federal District, and also wish to travel outside of Russia, where the same law applies. The executive branch has different views.

The fact of concealment of information about a replaced auto part may be revealed during an inspection by technical supervision employees. If this happens, in 2021 they have the right to pick up the car and evacuate it to an impound lot until the circumstances are clarified, and impose penalties on the owner.

Another unpleasant consequence of failure to comply with the law is the inability to remove or register a car with incorrect documents. Don't think that by selling your car you will get rid of this problem. The new owner will learn about the shortcomings of the purchased property during its state registration and will be able to report you to the Ministry of Internal Affairs as a fraudster, demanding a refund for the car, as well as compensation for the damage caused.

Is it possible to install a more powerful engine today?

In addition to the fact that this is technically possible, it is also required by law. As was said in the first paragraph of the article, in 2021 it is permissible to install third-party motors, but there is one condition - this is true in the case of replacing the engine with a similar model. The procedure for installing a non-standard internal combustion engine must be official, for which you need to obtain approval from the State Traffic Inspectorate.

More on the topic: Fines for motorcyclists

In both cases, the installation of a different power unit must be shown in the vehicle documents.

What is prohibited?

Order No. 399 also states that a vehicle that does not meet the characteristics of a given model is unacceptable for registration with the traffic police if the changes are not reflected in the title. For this reason, the owner of a tuned car without any changes will face the main problem - refusal to carry out registration actions.

Theoretically, you can drive such a car until the traffic police find out about the fact of the alteration. However, traffic police officers can easily identify discrepancies in the following situations:

  1. A banal stop on the road can result in a comparison of body and engine numbers with those in the traffic police databases.
  2. When carrying out registration actions, when it is necessary to provide the vehicle for inspection at the traffic police site.
  3. When selling a car, the new owner will not be able to re-register the car in his or her own name.

Cancellation of registration for a replaced engine

In addition to refusal of registration, paragraph 59 of this order stipulates that changes identified during the use of the vehicle, listed in paragraph 3 of the Regulations, become an objective reason for canceling the registration of the vehicle.

This happens in the following order:

  1. An inspector stops a car during a raid aimed at finding discrepancies in registration data.
  2. The engine model and number are verified. If at least one of the two parameters does not match, a protocol is drawn up.
  3. Based on the protocol, the inspector draws up a report to the head of the MREO department on the existence of grounds for deregistration of the vehicle registration in connection with the replacement of the power unit.
  4. The head of the MREO makes a decision to cancel the registration of the vehicle.

Attention! Driving in a deregistered vehicle is strictly prohibited. If this violation is detected, the inspector will confiscate the vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle’s vehicle, sending it to the impound lot, and the driver will receive a fine.

When is it necessary to register an engine replacement with the traffic police in 2021?

A car owner can change the engine in 2021 for several reasons.

  1. The old motor is not repairable, or its repair is not feasible from an economic point of view.
  2. The owner wants to improve the characteristics of the car (for example, power)

In these cases, the car owner has several options.

  • Purchase original spare parts.
  • Purchase an analog engine made by a certified manufacturer of spare parts.
  • Purchase a suitable motor at a disassembly or second hand.

In the first two options everything is quite simple. You receive the spare part with documents, install it in the proper place and go to the traffic police department to register an engine replacement, if it is needed (clause 52 of the Rules, approved by Government Decree No. 1764 of December 21, 2019).

For the third scenario, the situation is somewhat more complicated. The catch is that spare parts purchased secondhand or at a disassembly site do not always have documents. If you decide to save on buying an engine, you can get into big problems, since units from stolen cars are often sold in this way. You can protect yourself during a transaction in 2021 by first contacting the theft department of the traffic police and making a request for the engine number.

Such actions are recommended when installing a spare part identical to the previous one. However, when installing a car engine in 2021 with other parameters, its mandatory registration with the traffic police is required.

There is no need to assume that by erasing the engine number, you can install it without registering changes with the traffic police. During the first inspection of the car, an attentive employee of the state technical supervision will notice this nuance and report it to the inspectors. In the shortest possible time, the owner of a vehicle who has damaged the engine number will be punished to the letter of the law. According to Article No. 326, set out in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, in 2021, deleting or damaging the engine number carries a fine of 80,000 rubles.

Be sure that according to Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia N 950, in 2021, when installing a new engine with characteristics different from the previous one, its mandatory registration is required. You should not look for loopholes and try to circumvent the law, otherwise, instead of spending a small amount of time on paperwork at the traffic police, you will have to spend a large amount of money.

Do I need to provide documents for a new engine?

When replacing an internal combustion engine, car owners purchase it in three ways:

  1. Buy an original motor.
  2. Buy a model with similar characteristics from a certified company.
  3. They buy used motors at disassembly sites or second-hand.

The first two points do not cause problems: in such cases, motorists receive original documents for the engine upon purchase. But when purchasing used spare parts, documents are most often not included in the kit. And the purchase itself is risky, since such a motor may be on the wanted list. In this case, you should find out the engine number before purchasing and contact the traffic police with a request to check it for availability in the search database.

When passing a technical inspection or when selling a car, engine documents may be required in the following situations:

  • the characteristics of the new engine do not coincide with the characteristics provided by the vehicle manufacturer for this model and configuration;
  • if the identification number of the new engine is illegible or damaged;
  • if the internal combustion engine is in the wanted database (however, the presence of the document will not exempt the owner from the investigation).

Normative base

In 2021, using the engine number, you can find a stolen car and bring criminals to justice, even in such circumstances when the car was repainted, rebuilt or disassembled and sold for parts.

It should also be taken into account that when installing a motor that is unsuitable for other components and assemblies, the vehicle can become dangerous both for the owner and for other road users. Not all modifications to a car are acceptable or safe.

Taking into account the structural complexity of the car engine, as well as its role in the search for stolen cars, the legislative authorities have developed a broad regulatory framework. The set of documents regulates both the procedure for replacing the engine with a new one in 2021 and the procedure for registering this action in the traffic police MREO.

A careful study of the regulations will help you navigate the nuances of the procedure correctly.

  1. Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia N 950.
  2. Rules approved Government Decree No. 1764 of December 21, 2019.
  3. Federal Law of August 3, 2018 N 283-FZ, Article 10.
  4. Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “On the safety of wheeled vehicles” (TR CU 018/2011)
  5. Decision N 877 of the Customs Union Commission “On the adoption of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union”
  6. “Criminal Code of the Russian Federation” dated June 13, 1996 N 63-FZ (as amended on February 19, 2019)

Motor replacement law

The legislative framework contains a number of regulatory documents that, to one degree or another, relate to the issue of registering an engine with the traffic police that has been replaced in 2021:

  • Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs No. 399, which was issued on June 26, 2018 and canceled a number of other documents.
  • Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia No. 605, issued on August 7, 2013. The latest revision was made on July 6, 2017 “On approval of the Administrative Regulations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation for the provision of public services for the registration of vehicles and trailers for them.”
  • Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “On the safety of wheeled vehicles” (TR CU 018/2011);
  • Decision No. 877 of the Customs Union Commission, entitled “On the adoption of technical regulations of the Customs Union.”
  • Criminal Code of the Russian Federation FZ-63 dated June 13, 1996.

The need to register changes made to the design of a car is also stated in Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1090 of October 23, 1993. The document is called “On the Rules of the Road”, article 7, paragraph 18.

Registration of engine replacement in the traffic police

One of the simplest situations in 2021 is replacing the motor with a unit with similar characteristics. Considering the fact that the procedure is not considered a change to the standard design of the vehicle, the owner will not have to spend money and time on various examinations. He can immediately take the new engine and the old car to a specialized service center.

However, there is one important point here: you need to insure yourself that the purchased engine does not turn out to be a spare part from a stolen car. If this fact is revealed, and the owner of the car has not taken any measures in advance, then he will then have to explain for a long time to the traffic police officers under what circumstances he came into possession of the stolen spare part.

Another important aspect that may prevent the registration of a new engine by the traffic police in 2021 will be an unreadable number on the unit itself. In this case, before installing a new motor, you will have to seek an examination.

First of all, when purchasing an engine, you need to save all the seller’s contact information. When completing a transaction, ask him for documents for the spare part, receipts, acceptance certificates, signed contracts and other documents confirming the fact of the transaction.

The next stage is registration of the completed modification in the traffic police. In 2021, a motorist will only need to undergo an inspection by technical inspection staff, who will transfer all the data about the engine to the inspector, who, in turn, will mark the PTS to change the spare part (clause 52 of the Rules, approved by Government Decree No. 1764 of December 21, 2019).

In essence, registering a replacement for a similar engine with the traffic police in 2021 comes down to three simple steps:

  1. Obtaining a permit from the traffic police MREO (this item is indicated as recommended).
  2. Installation of a new unit in the service.
  3. Introducing the changes made in the form of standard marks in the PTS in the traffic police.

The cost of the procedure in 2021 is 350 rubles. It will be used to pay state fees. The amount is not large, but after paying it and spending a little time on paperwork at the traffic police, you will be able to drive around in an updated car with absolute peace of mind.

Engine swap. Choose more powerful, choose more reliable!

The swap of units, which began to develop about a decade and a half ago, at that time met only one goal - to make the car more powerful, more noticeable, more individual. In general, it was the lot of enthusiasts who wanted to get something like that. Then somehow everything started to turn around, and the English word swap (by the way, is correctly read as “swap”, although we are accustomed to a different, home-grown transcription), meaning exchange, replacement of something, firmly entered into operational use. Is the original engine getting old? Shouldn’t we “swap” it for something not quite extreme, but a little more powerful and definitely much more reliable? However, since January 2015, when all changes to the design began to be regulated by the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union, it seemed that swap was supposed to die. How is the situation with him now?

First, a little about bureaucratic creativity. According to the version of the Customs Union regulations that has been in force since 2015, all changes that affect safety must be supported by documents. And these are no less than non-standard seats, HBO, an off-road body kit, tuning suspension and steering elements, even a sunroof, a direct-flow muffler and arch extensions. What can we say about the engine? At first all this was perceived as nothing more than another whim of our officials. But after a year and a half, the traffic police began road crackdowns.

Don't have permission to change the design? A warning or a fine of 500–800 rubles, and along with the latter, a ten-day period to bring it back to normal is required. If you don’t do it, your car registration will be cancelled. If you continue to exploit, you will be punished with a five thousand dollar penalty or deprivation of rights for three months. In some regions, the traffic police turned a blind eye to this. Somewhere the inspectors were furious, paying attention primarily to the “forward flow”, lowered suspension, lift and other external “markers” of tuning.

The legalization of technical changes, as I remember, made me run around. Although in some regions a paid “service” immediately appeared - 30,000 rubles, and everything will be done quickly, without your personal participation. But there were no shortage of certified laboratories in the country capable of issuing an opinion on the possibility of certain modifications. Documents and photos of the car were sometimes sent to other regions to obtain permission.

In 2021, it became known that the government is preparing new rules for the legalization of tuning. According to them (GOST 33670), firstly, remote examination will be prohibited. Secondly, regarding the topic of our article - increasing the engine power and its displacement by more than 10% of the standard one. That is, in fact, almost any swap is prohibited. The amendments were going to be introduced on July 1, 2019. But they postponed it for a year. Then until February 2021. The latest information is that they will come into force on July 1, 2021.

So for now you can breathe out. Traffic cops, of course, give owners of tuned cars a nightmare. However, there is no logic in this. At different times and in different regions, they are sometimes mistaken for lifted SUVs with power body kits, or for passenger cars with a non-standard “casting”. It looks like a seasonal exacerbation of chronic diseases from the field of psychiatry. But this only makes us feel better. Moreover, at the moment (until the new draconian rules come into force), inspectors pay attention specifically to external signs. The exhaust screams, the bottom scrapes, it takes off like a slingshot? So, our client! Meanwhile, replacing an engine with a non-standard one, if we are talking about a purely “domestic” application, almost never carries such indications of a “design change”. Both customers of the work and performers note: for the traffic police, such cars are like invisible. If they stop you, they are unlikely to look under the hood.

That is why there are enough structures in the country that are ready to carry out “swaps” of varying complexity. Moreover, if previously they were concentrated in its eastern part, now there are plenty of them in the west. Some of these organizations can offer a full cycle of procedures - from purchasing a contract engine for you abroad to assistance in legalizing it.

Somewhere they are doing this according to the residual principle: “if it’s necessary, we’ll do it.” Then you will have to look for the unit yourself and legitimize it yourself. The typical cost of the last procedure is already 80,000–100,000 rubles. For some, this, by the way, is not a reason to refuse replacement and its documentary evidence. In general, there are situations when a “swap”, no matter how much it costs, is the only financially available option. Let's figure it out now.

Retro: breathe new life

This topic seems to be dying out here. Russia is not America, where rejuvenating Youngtimers with modern engines and hot rodding is a full-fledged part of the automotive subculture. A few years ago it was on the rise. Now, apparently, both the exchange rate and the Technical Regulations are having an impact. Still, a powerful engine under the hood of a 40-60 year old car is a very specific hobby and investment. Wealthy retro connoisseurs now prefer authenticity. And Jay Z to Volga...

There are two options. The first is when a classic body from the GAZ-M20, 21, 24 is placed on the platform of a representative “Japanese” with all the suspension, power unit and, most importantly, the power structure. This is, of course, not a swap in its pure form. But it’s an ideal way to combine retro appearance and relatively modern technology with “on-level” driving performance. Here is one of the worthy representatives of this trend, whom I managed to meet while driving and who left the most pleasant impressions.

The second option is to replace one motor with another. Usually together with the transmission, but with the remaining standard chassis and power structure of the body. Soviet to Soviet or Russian does not count. 406 engines have been installed in Volga for a long time. And “hundreds” (100-horsepower UAZ) in the GAZ-69 - even more so. There is no doubt that this is the most organic combination of technology from different generations. A 180- or 280-horsepower “six”/“eight” on a “barge” chassis is, in my opinion, too much.

At the very least, the gearbox in the rear axle will not withstand it. It will not be possible to replace it with one that is designed for serious torque. Japanese and European manufacturers did not start abandoning beams yesterday. If they were used, it was on modifications with basic low-power motors. Such bridges will not withstand the load from GTE or UZ for long. The introduction of a gearbox as part of an independent suspension raises the complexity of the project to a different level. And how can the chassis and body with its rigidity and center of gravity from the middle of the last century cope with such power? The answer is obvious. It’s certainly better to cut off the top of some Aristo and install old Gorky iron instead.

Although we are familiar with projects where the symbiosis of the engine and everything that surrounds it, despite the decades of age difference, does not cause technical dissonance. Here is a Volga with a 140-horsepower 1G-FE.

And Moskvich-412 with 1G-E, developing 105 forces.

Their gearbox won't break and you won't get squealing tires. In general, a reasonable symbiosis of power and chassis capabilities. Not for showing off - for rare, as in the case of authentic retro, “outings”.

Make it better: a little or dramatically

Very often people turn to a swap not because they have a good life - because of a broken engine and out of distrust of motorists. Another thing is that replacing the unit allows you to adjust the characteristics of the car (not necessarily in the direction of increasing power) and even save money.

Sergey Orlov

Head of technical center Best Motors

— Our main clients, naturally, are those whose engine is “on the way” or whose car has already been delivered by tow truck. In such a situation, why not choose something more suitable among engines of the same brand. Let's say change 1G-FE to Beams. Or 1G to 1JZ. For us it costs 150,000 rubles, which is only slightly more expensive than a major restoration of the unit. Another example: replacing 4A-GE with 4A-FE. It would seem, where is the logic? But this 20-valve “four” now costs 80,000–90,000 rubles, while the “effective” analogue costs only 55,000. In addition, “live” GE ones are already in short supply. Involuntarily, you will turn to what is more accessible.

On Honda, on the contrary, instead of “toothless” engines - say, the 150-horsepower F20 - they ask to install the F20 (180 hp) and H23 (200 hp) from SiR.

SUVs are one of the most popular topics. Surfs travel a lot - from body N130 to N215. They are replacing their 2L-TE, 3RZ and 2TR “fours” with 3.4-liter 5VZ “sixes”.

With diesel engines, everything is clear - old, expensive, it is not profitable to repair or purchase contract ones. But 2TR, for its volume and number of cylinders, is incredibly expensive - 200,000–250,000 rubles. 5VZ - only 80,000. In addition, the V6 is more powerful, and such customers, as a rule, do not particularly care about fuel consumption. It’s interesting that sometimes it happens like this: once there was a 5VZ, it was changed to a “four”. And now they are returning the V-shape. So from a legal point of view everything is in order. Many SUVs, by the way, go to the provinces, and their owners are not worried about legalization. As for the given examples of Toyota and Honda cars, all of these are exclusively “civilian” cars. Without “forward flows”, discs with a negative offset and “hydraulic handbrake”, which is what traffic cops pay attention to first of all.

The work takes at least a week. At most - a month and a half. Due to the fact that sometimes it is difficult to find some of the necessary components. For example, parts of the wiring - sometimes the “braid” has to be assembled from three. At the same time, engines are “swapped” all over the country, the service is extremely popular, and sometimes there are not enough engines along with other components.

Still, replacing an engine with a unit of the same brand with the same number of cylinders and a similar arrangement is a fairly standard operation. For the “Japanese” and “Europeans” (the latter are also accustomed to replacing “failed” engines with ones that are more reliable) this is enough. But the Russian auto industry requires a global rethinking of the technical base. And, as they said, not according to the principle of “wasteful”. What, for example, instead of the wretched 409 engine, can you choose from the category “made in the Russian Federation” for the Patriot? Never mind! And Japan gives such a wide choice!

Of course, such UAZs cannot but attract the attention of inspectors. And the mechanical design of their chassis must be brought into the semblance of a car - changing the castor, working on the guide vane, installing a more horizontal Panhard rod, etc. The first swap experiments, by the way, were carried out on diesel engines (Nissan's TD27 and QD32 and Toyota's 3L) and were pursued goals of improving off-road performance.

But later, the transfer to Japanese traction began to be considered as a way to improve the road qualities of Ulyanovsk jeeps. The Patriot began to be perceived as nothing more than an affordable substitute for the Prado. This one needs something more than ZMZ. Let's say the same 5VZ.

Atmospheric versions of the JZ sixes are also installed in the Patriot. And all the variations of the UZs - from the Crown 1UZ to the 4.7-liter cruiser 2UZ. Across the country, such an installation costs from 300,000 to 450,000 rubles.

Of course, this also raises questions about the reliability of the Ulyanovsk transmission (the torque in the “eight” is almost one and a half to two times more than in the ZMZ-409) and how the chassis can cope with such a charge. However, the former can be solved by switching to a “transfer case” from TLC and, accordingly, Full time - Newton meters are now always divided into two bridges. As for handling, with the suspension upgrades described above, the Patriot at least stops floating in a straight line.

Following the Patriots, GAZelles went to swap. In this case, there was no talk of “letting it burn,” of course. I would like to exclude the ever-breaking power unit from the list of current problems and increase the service life to “capital”! Well, the “automatic” is some kind of creator of comfort. And the combination of 3UZ and 6-speed automatic transmission makes commercial vehicles not only reliable but also economical.

On the Internet you can even find calculations of the strength of axle shafts, according to which it turns out that they will withstand “alien” 400+ Nm. And the gearboxes don’t seem to be flying in bunches. One way or another, the Toyota engine in the GAZelle is still a popular swap. There are, however, exceptions to this configuration. Below in the photo is a passenger GAZ with a Nissan VQ30DE, an automatic transmission of the same brand and a steering rack from Gloria.

Out of despair

Not only GAZ and UAZ vehicles require equipment correction. Both in business and in private use there are enough cars, in the case of which the death of the engine forces you to turn to a swap. A common operation is the installation of the same Toyota units instead of diesel engines on European minibuses operating as minibuses.

Sergey Orlov

Head of technical center Best Motors

— Powerful, but low-volume diesel engines, taking into account the huge mileage on routes, at some point become very expensive to operate. It is necessary to restore the functionality of the fuel equipment and restore the cylinder-piston group. It’s easier and cheaper to install a Toyota engine and forget about problems for many tens of thousands of km. We installed 1JZ in a Ford Transit.

3UZ - in Iveco Daily.

Such an operation is more expensive than replacing the same JZ in some Mark II. Costs a maximum of 300,000 rubles. But it allows you to get rid of the hassle that takes up time and money once and for all.

Japanese engines are installed in Fiat Ducato, VW Crafter, Mercedes-Benz Sprinter. It happens that owners of expensive crossovers/SUVs have no choice. Especially when the car is no longer young and engine repairs can easily cost as much as the cost of the car. Thanks to this, Toyota “row” and “V” models are registered under the hoods of VW Touareg, Porsche Cayenne, Land Rover Discovery.

The most crazy project, in our opinion, is the 3UZ with a six-speed gearbox in the Bentley Continental GT.

Naturally, for the same reasons, they “swap” Mercs, BMWs and, in principle, everything that has high-tech and, alas, low-resource engines.

A riot of fantasy

Speaking about retro, minibuses and premium models, we forget that very often swap does not have the ultimate goal of “driving long and beautifully.” For the creator he personifies his own capabilities. In such a case, it is difficult to somehow classify everything that comes out of the “grinder” and “welder”. We can only say that some of the projects are aimed purely at daily use. And others for sports. Although there are also dual-use works.

There are standard solutions. For example, the same “Yu Zetas” under the hoods of Lexus IS/Toyota Altezza.

Not often, but other “eights” - Nissan ones - become the object of “swap”. Here's the VH45DE in a Skyline R31. And it’s in the engine compartment of the R33.

The fours in the Civic are being replaced by the J32.

This Avensis carries a supercharged 3.5-liter 2GR and all-wheel drive.

The owner of this Celica rotated the power plant longitudinally.

Here the coupe is a younger generation and with the ubiquitous 3UZ.

Jay Zeta, UZ, GR are “swapped” into the rotary Mazda RX-8.

And even more so different “fours”. Here is Ryksa with a Mitsubishi 4G63.

But with Mazda’s “four” ZY-VE.

This project is interesting because ZY, in principle, does not often become an object of tuning, especially in Russia. In this case, he is also “turbocharged”. The car itself has retained its transmission, suspension, steering, and even the standard stabilization system works. We decided to talk about this RX-8 separately. For now, let’s briefly give the floor to its owner.

Vadim Chirkov

Engaged in tuning, setting up control systems

— The rotary engine was not going to be left under the hood even before purchasing the RX-8. And fuel consumption of up to 20 l/100 km and oil consumption of up to a liter per thousand only confirmed my opinion - it needs to be changed. In the end, one day it simply wouldn’t start, which sped up the swap.

Since it was intended to participate in the Time attack, the engine size (ZY from Demio - 1.5-liter) was selected taking into account the use of turbocharging, which gives an increasing coefficient, and so as to remain in the class with 2.5-liter naturally aspirated engines, in which hits the Mazda RX-8 with an atmospheric two-section rotor. The choice in favor of this “one and a half” was made because its exhaust tract is on the same side as that of a rotary engine. External dimensions made it possible to place it as close as possible to the cabin, practically without adjusting the engine shield or moving the steering rack. I know that when they “swap” the Jay Zetas, they move the rail, and this is wrong. And weight distribution for the RX-8 plays almost a primary role.

The turbine is from an Impreza STi, converted from twin to mono scroll to optimize space in the engine compartment. Now it develops a pressure of 1.3 bar, and its power is 283 hp. The engine is controlled by a universal unit from Vems. Electronic throttle - standard ECU. Thanks to this, Mazda’s traction control and stabilization system remained operational. The only thing missing is cruise control. But this is because instead of “automatic” there is now “mechanics”.

So, it turns out that swap is a blessing, in some way a panacea, and in a number of not at all small cases the only option that can bring the car back to life? There is another opinion. It is all the more significant because it comes from a person who, until recently, himself “swapped” various engines and built projects for sports and everyday use.

Alexander Denisov

— At one time I made a lot of swaps. The 1JZ-GTE was installed everywhere - in Marks, in BMW, in Volvo. Moreover, I don’t consider the installation of Toyota units in Toyota to be a swap at all. It’s simple to the point of banality and does not require the use of any unique technical solutions.

At Subaru, I changed 1.5-liter engines to EJ20 - bolt to bolt. But even installing the same in-line “six” in the “Bavarians” and “Swedes” also does not force us to solve complex design problems. In the same BMW, for example, there are many technological holes in the bottom that can be used to attach the rear part of the box.

I installed 3UZ in GAZelles and UAZs. As one of my friends says, a pig is a trotter from a hill. Well, the chassis of these cars is not adapted for such engines, for such power! The same can be said about the TLC 70, especially the lifted one. Once I had to fulfill such an order. On the Mark II in the 80th body, the engine compartment is cramped and the side members are too fluid. UZ gets there with difficulty. In addition, along with the “eight” gears, the standard pair comes with a “long” gear ratio - in my opinion, 3.1:1. On “mark-shaped” ones it is “shorter” - from 3.7:1 and more. This is not taken into account in any way, and the “swap” V8s begin to consume gasoline in huge quantities.

Another nuance - the later the car is released, the tougher its power structure. When swapping volumetric engines, this certainly needs to be taken into account. I had to somehow compare the power structure of the Silvia S15 and the latest generation Fairlady - literally like a packet of kefir and a piece of concrete.

The installation of a Japanese engine in a Zhiguli is quite popular. I myself “swapped” Nissan’s SR into a “classic”, intended for drifting, and summer drifting at that. I remember that from the installation there were difficulties with attachments and the steering rack. However, the owner, having installed 205 tires at low pressure for the “holder,” tore the axle shafts almost every day. But they put it in “Zhigi” and “Jay Zeta”.

An acquaintance in his VAZ-2104 did not chase after cylinders and “horses” - he stuck 1NZ.

If the owner himself is involved in such a swap, this, of course, commands respect - there are so many problems that need to be solved! However, the end result here is not always the goal of the entire work. Some people just like the process. Modify the chassis to accommodate the increased power. Splice the wiring so that the motor works like in the “Japanese”. In fact, few succeed. I’ve had an idea on the shelf for a long time - to put a 1.4-liter Vagov turbo engine in the Zhiga. It will be difficult in terms of electrics - because of the electronic throttle, the “smart” cooling system with an electronic thermostat.

A lot of literally crooked swaps had to be redone. You look at the engine, and it stands diagonally in the compartment. Another characteristic feature of a Russian swap is the mounting brackets made of 5- or even 8-mm steel. Weld it so that in the event of a head-on collision, the unit, along with the side members, goes into the cabin. There are also the original silumin brackets, which should break properly upon impact and send the motor down. Ours is strong, but in an accident it’s fatal. I always tried to keep the standard mounts. I'm not even talking about wiring wrapped with electrical tape. Inoperative salon equipment. And leaks through all the seals. A contract engine requires a basic inspection - measure the oil pressure, look at the liners. And, of course, replacing all the rubber bands and timing drive. Until it is placed in the engine compartment, this is easy to do.

Now you understand that some engines are absolutely not suitable for a particular car. They change the weight distribution, affecting the driving performance. A typical example is the JZ in a finely tuned model like the RX-8. To do this, you also have to move the steering rack, which is absolutely terrible from a safety point of view.

I once refused to a man who killed the 4.8-liter V8 on his own Cayenne S and wanted to change it to a 3UZ. Well, why? These are different motors, each of which serves its own purposes. However, Toyota's V8 will not replace Porsche's. Spend more, “capital” of the “German”!

And there are few contract engines left that are in good condition. At least the Jay Zetas. Recently, they have been thoroughly raked out of Japan. In addition, the years make themselves felt. The plastic of the connectors has aged - you insert a “chip”, but it breaks. The wires do not bend, which causes short circuits in the wiring. Moreover, if previously a motor cost approximately 50,000 rubles, now it is at least twice as expensive. The same 2JZ-GTE - already 185,000 plus delivery.

After all, legal issues cannot be discounted. In different regions, the traffic police treat engine replacement in their own way. Despite the fact that several years ago the engine became, as it were, a non-numbered unit, there were cases when, during registration procedures, the car was “wrapped up” without blatant examples of swapping. A friend on Vista Ardeo changed 3S-FSE to 3S-FE. They looked at the engine number and refused. I had to reinstall the direct injection engine. What then can we say about changing the “four” to the “six” or “eight”! I know that in the south of the country they are canceling the registration of Zhiguli cars with gearboxes - 16-valve engines from front-wheel drive VAZs.

It seems that the ban on any replacement of engines is a resolved issue. We must have time to install and legalize it before July 2021. True, our law often has retroactive force. This was the case with “designers” and “Armenian” cars. Will it turn out that raids will begin on “swap” cars, whose owners have legalized all the alterations, and the registration will be cancelled?

Replacing an engine with different parameters

Having decided to change the characteristics of your car by replacing the engine, in 2021 the car owner should be prepared to spend some time in order to go through all the stages and formalize this action according to the letter of the law. To strictly take into account such changes, Order No. 950 was issued, approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

When replacing an engine in 2021 with a spare part with different characteristics, the owner changes the level of reliability of the vehicle, so it is necessary to have a conclusion from the relevant authorities on the safety of the modernization being made. When making changes to the design of the car, its owner must take into account that after installing a unit with a higher power, the transport tax may also increase.

Compared to the situation of installing a motor with similar characteristics, in this case the number of actions of the car owner when registering an engine replacement at the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate increases noticeably in accordance with Federal Law dated 03.08.2018 N 283-FZ Art. 10.

  1. It is necessary to submit an application to the traffic police about the desire to make changes to the configuration of the vehicle. The application is filled out in the prescribed form.
  2. Use the services of an expert organization. Experts must check and evaluate the safety of installing a new auto part on the provided vehicle. After the assessment, the experts sign a conclusion in which they authorize the modification and also describe the procedure for installing the new motor.
  3. Having submitted the application and conclusion, wait for a resolution from the traffic police authorizing the conversion of the vehicle in 2021.
  4. Contact a specialized service center that has a license to perform such manipulations for replacement. Often these actions are also performed by expert organizations. If you wish, you can perform the replacement yourself.
  5. After completing the work, the owner receives copies of the license, auto service certificate, as well as a declaration statement. In case of independent replacement, the car owner will fill out the declaration himself.
  6. At any technical inspection department, you must undergo a performance check of all units and components of the machine and obtain a diagnostic card for the vehicle. These services are also often performed by expert organizations.
  7. Bring the necessary documents to the traffic police and provide your vehicle for control by state technical supervision officers.

Having completed all the actions as described in the above plan, the owner will receive a certificate for the car confirming its compliance with the agreed design, as well as a certificate of vehicle registration and a vehicle passport with the necessary marks.

The entire procedure for registering an engine replacement with the traffic police, including points one through seven, will require a significant investment of time and money, including payment of the state fee for re-registration. Its size in 2021 will be 800 rubles.

Is it possible to replace an engine without documents?

In the situation of changing the mechanism to a similar one, there is no need to register the replacement in the passport paper for the vehicle , since the PTS is not a document for registration, and the registration certificate does not include information about the unit number. Thus, the internal combustion engine is currently an ordinary spare part, and not a unit with a unique number.

There is no need to register the engine replacement in the vehicle's passport paper

But if you installed in your vehicle not an analogue of the previous mechanism, but a more powerful engine, the traffic police classifies this as changes in the design of the car . And before registering this replacement, permission for these changes must first be obtained.

Otherwise, the owner may be brought to administrative liability.

Replacing the engine with a completely new one

With a completely new engine, the car owner is insured against the fact that the unit may have previously belonged to a stolen car, so there is no need to contact the search department to check the number of the new spare part.

Otherwise, this procedure is completely identical to the algorithms described above for registering an engine replacement at the traffic police. With similar characteristics of the new unit, you will need a minimum of time and paperwork. When installing a new engine with car parameters different from the factory characteristics, you will have to stock up on time and patience.

Replacing the motor with a contract one

Changing the engine in 2021 to a contract one differs from the usual case in that the installed unit was purchased outside the borders of Russia. A distinctive feature in 2021 will be the following: when registering a contract engine, an employee of the state traffic inspectorate may require a customs declaration from the owner for the import of spare parts.

All other aspects of the procedure are similar to the algorithms for registering a car purchased in Russia. If a case arises of installing a motor with characteristics similar to the old one, you will only need to submit an application and provide the updated car for inspection. If you install a car part with other parameters, you will have to go through all the authorities, as when registering a Russian car with other characteristics.

The procedure for legal registration of engine replacement

If none of the above conditions are met, then you do not need to visit the traffic police department specifically to apply for a replacement. A discrepancy between the engine number and the number recorded in the documents will not create any problems. Changes to the PTS will be automatically made during the next inspection or during other registration actions, and the traffic police has no right to demand a document for the engine itself. However, when making changes to the vehicle passport, you will need to pay a state fee of 350 rubles. (245 rubles when paying using State Services).

Installing an internal combustion engine with other parameters

The most difficult replacement option is installing an engine that is different from the one that was previously installed on the car or that was provided by the car manufacturer.

In this case, the replacement process should be formalized like any other procedure for changing the design of a car:

  1. The first step is to notify the traffic police of your intention to make such changes and obtain permission.
  2. Next, you need to contact a certified organization to conduct an examination on the possibility of making changes to the design of the vehicle and receive an official conclusion.
  3. After this, an application for amendments is submitted to the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate (MREO) of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate (at this stage, STS, PTS and the owner’s civil passport will be required).
  4. Only after overcoming all these bureaucratic difficulties can the motorist contact a certified service station and replace the engine. The service station must issue a declaration of work performed.
  5. The next test is passing 3 inspections: private technical examination at a certified organization, technical inspection and inspection at the traffic police.
  6. At the end of this journey, the motorist must pay 2 state fees for making changes to the PTS and replacing the STS (350 rubles + 500 rubles or 245 rubles + 350 rubles when paying through State Services).

Replacing the internal combustion engine with a similar model

If the new engine has exactly the same technical characteristics as the previous one, then there is no need to separately register the changes with the State Traffic Inspectorate. It is enough to simply carry out a replacement, and changes to the PTS will be made automatically when performing any other registration actions or when passing a technical inspection.

At the moment, the law does not provide for the requirement to provide documents for new engines, but it is better to save them for 2 reasons:

  • there will be a guarantee that no problems will arise during the inspection;
  • no one knows how the laws may change in the future: suddenly, engine documents will again become mandatory to make changes to the title.

Replacing the internal combustion engine with a contract one

A contract engine is an internal combustion engine that has been removed from a similar vehicle and imported into the Russian Federation from abroad. The conditions for replacing the engine with a contract one are the same as for other engines, except for one nuance: if the vehicle passport information is changed, the Traffic Inspectorate employees may require a customs declaration.

Necessary documents for registration of engine replacement in the traffic police

When changing a car engine to a similar one in 2021, you will need a small list of documents:

  • A receipt confirming the fact of payment of the state duty.
  • Original and photocopy of the vehicle owner's passport.
  • Original and photocopy of PTS.
  • Documents received upon purchase of the motor.
  • Certificate of registration of the vehicle.
  • Application for changing the vehicle configuration, signed by a traffic police inspector.
  • Certificates for materials, as well as spare parts that were needed when converting the vehicle.

In a situation where a new auto part has different characteristics from the previous one, in addition to the above, the following certificates will be needed:

  • Expert opinion.
  • Application-declaration, received at a car service center or filled out independently, about the work performed.
  • Protocol of the technical examination carried out.
  • Fresh diagnostic card.

How to install a motor with other technical characteristics correctly?

In order to successfully complete the registration procedure for a non-standard engine, it is important to follow two rules:

  1. Do not make any changes until you receive permission from the traffic police. Arriving at the MREO with an already converted car will result in a 100% refusal to consider and register this vehicle. And formally you can receive a protocol and a resolution to cancel the registration of a car, but in practice this practically never happens.
  2. You cannot carry out the engine installation procedure yourself. The direct part must be carried out by an accredited service station, which will issue the relevant documents required when legitimizing the alteration in the traffic police.

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How to make changes with a more powerful motor?

As can be understood from the above, the process is quite complex. However, this is the only option that allows you to officially drive with a more powerful engine. In addition, the procedure is relatively expensive: prices for the services of an expert organization and state fees start from 50 thousand rubles.

Full instructions:

Passing a preliminary examination

Before making a change to the design, a preliminary technical examination of the design is necessary to determine the admissibility of such a change. Often at this step there is the possibility of delegating authority to review the issue to a third party. However, the owner of the vehicle must still visit the traffic police. The list of institutions authorized to conduct preliminary technical examinations is published on the website of the EEC Technical Regulation Department.

Collecting the necessary documents and submitting them to the MREO

Now you need to fill out an application and provide the following documents to the traffic police:

  1. Conclusion of a preliminary technical examination of the vehicle to determine the possibility of implementing the change.
  2. Application for amendment.
  3. Civil passport of the vehicle owner.
  4. Vehicle passport.
  5. Vehicle certificate (pink plastic card).

Also at this stage it is necessary to bring the car to the traffic police site for inspection.

Making changes to the car

Based on the results of consideration of the application by the registration authority and receipt of approval (the decision may be negative in the case established by law), it is necessary to proceed to the engine installation procedure itself. As you know, this is only permissible with the help of an organization that has certificates of compliance for carrying out work on the relevant types of changes. As a rule, such a certificate is available from the organization conducting the assessment and examination of the technical feasibility of the change.

Receiving an application-declaration

After installing the engine in the vehicle, the owner is issued a declaration statement, which displays the scope and quality of the modification. That is why the owner will not be able to replace the engine on his own. Approving organizations are reluctant to accept responsibility for work performed by outsiders.

Carrying out an examination after making a change

Now the technical examination is carried out again based on the results of technical work on the design of the car, after which the owner will receive a technical examination report. This is done by the same organization as in the first paragraph.

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Passing a technical inspection

The technical part of the procedure ends with a vehicle inspection at an authorized organization. A list of such institutions can be found on the RSA website.

Payment of state duty, preparation and submission of documents on changes to the traffic police

After the above-described manipulations, a state duty of 800 rubles is paid. and is re-visited by the MREO with a list of the following documents:

  1. Conclusion of a preliminary technical examination of the vehicle to determine the possibility of implementing the change.
  2. Original and photocopy of the vehicle owner's passport.
  3. Vehicle certificate.
  4. PTS and its photocopy.
  5. Technical examination protocol.
  6. Diagnostic card issued by the inspection point.
  7. Receipt for payment of state duty.
  8. A notarized copy of the certificate of conformity for the engine and its elements used in the conversion of the vehicle, but only if they do not have conformity markings allowing the use of the part as part of the modified vehicle.
  9. The vehicle itself is to be inspected by a technical inspector of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate for compliance with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union.

Application to the traffic police for engine replacement

A sample application for engine replacement can be easily found on the website or at the traffic police department.

The application to the traffic police to replace the engine consists of several blocks:

  1. Information about the vehicle (VIN, make, color, power, etc.)
  2. Information about the owner of the vehicle. When filling out this block, it is enough to indicate your full name and registration address.
  3. List of proposed changes.
  4. Resolution of the traffic inspector.

Applications to the traffic police for engine replacement in 2021 can be found here.

Registration period

When planning any action, especially one related to government agencies, it always seems that it will take a lot of time. When planning to register an engine change with the traffic police in 2021, you need to take into account the following deadlines.

If a replacement occurs with a similar engine, then registration with the traffic police is reduced to entering the corresponding mark in the vehicle passport. This action will only take a few hours and depends only on the size of the queue.

Registration of modernization associated with the installation of a different type of motor will take much longer. You will have to come to the MREO traffic police department itself twice: to fill out an application and to submit a package of documents collected after making the proposed changes to the vehicle. You will also have to allocate time to conduct a technical inspection and obtain a diagnostic card. After submitting documents to the inspector, the procedure for checking them can take up to several hours, but, as a rule, the owner of the car receives a title with the marks and changes made on the day the documents are submitted.

You can save your time in both cases. To do this, you need to sign up for this procedure on the public services portal. In this case, the car owner will not have to stand in line, he will only need to arrive at the appointed time.

How to install an engine of a different model

Unit changes in 2021 will be registered differently. Replacing the engine with another will entail adjustments to other spare parts, which, according to the law, brings a change in the level of vehicle safety.

It will be impossible to register an engine without documents in such a situation. You will need to submit a large list of papers to the traffic police department. After replacement, the amount of transport tax may also change.

Registering an engine of a different model

To make changes to the design of the car you will need:

  • visit the traffic police department;
  • complete an application using the prescribed form;
  • visit an expert company;
  • there will be issued confirmation of the possibility of making changes, declarations, copies of licenses and certificates of the company;
  • undergo a technical inspection procedure and analyze the technical condition of the vehicle, after which a replacement technical card will be issued;
  • a set of received papers should be submitted to the traffic police and the car should be sent for inspection;
  • pay the state fee for replacement (the cost will be 800 rubles).

Procedure for registering a car with a different engine

There is no need to change the car registration documentation , since the engine numbering is not recorded there now.

To legitimize the changes you need to assemble the following package:

  • document confirming the identity of the owner;
  • car passport;
  • certificate of calculation for the engine;
  • request to record changes;
  • examination results;
  • technical inspection result;
  • application-declaration of changes;
  • diagnostic card;
  • certificates of conformity.

Having completed everything correctly and agreed with the traffic police officers, the police officer will issue an official document confirming the conformity of the vehicle design, registration of the car, and a vehicle passport with recorded changes.

In a situation where the spare part numbers do not match the information in the vehicle passport, or the number cannot be read, registration of a vehicle with a different engine will not be possible.

In this case, it is necessary to require the inspector to formalize the refusal to register the vehicle in writing and submit a paper with a complaint to the management of the traffic police or to the court. A document with a complaint is submitted under all points of the law of the Russian Federation. If the installed motor is determined to be stolen, the charges will be dropped by the court. If the engine is imported from another country, the traffic police has the right to require a customs declaration to confirm the legality of the presence of the spare part in Russia.

If changes are made illegally , the alteration may be cancelled.

It happens this way:

  • the inspector stops the car and detects illegal modifications to the design;
  • after this, the traffic police officer writes a report;
  • the traffic police management makes a decision to cancel the car’s registration;
  • If another inspector makes a stop, he will immediately understand that the vehicle’s registration has been canceled and will confiscate the certificate.

In this case, you will have to go through the process again, but for this you will have to purchase a new engine. And these are considerable costs.

The cost of replacing an engine at the traffic police in 2021

The main share of costs when replacing a car engine will be occupied by the service itself to replace it. You can save money if you change the unit yourself. But even this will not save you from paying the state duty, which has the following amounts:

  • The cost of the state duty for making changes to the PTS will be 350 rubles.
  • The cost of state duty for registering an engine with new characteristics is 800 rubles.

You can also save at this stage; paying state fees using the government services portal leads to a reduction in their size.

What are the consequences of not registering an engine?

Registration of changes in vehicle configuration related to the replacement of a car engine with a unit with different technical characteristics in 2021 is mandatory. Otherwise, the owner faces a fine. In Art. 12.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation states that a fine of 800 rubles is imposed for a car that is not registered in the manner prescribed by law. An appeal against this administrative penalty is allowed within 10 days from the date of its issuance.

In a situation where the engine is removed from a stolen car, the vehicle on which this unit was found is subject to seizure and impoundment until the circumstances of the case are fully clarified.

Why is it necessary to register a more powerful/weak motor?


Speaking about a more powerful/weaker engine, we need to make a reservation - this power unit should not be in the range of acceptable ones that the manufacturer has allowed to be installed on this car model. Only in this case, replacing the engine will be considered a change in the design of the car and will require a safety examination and registration.

After making changes to the design of registered vehicles, including the design of their components, items of additional equipment, spare parts and accessories that affect road safety, re-certification or re-declaration of conformity is necessary.

Federal Law N 196-FZ “On Road Safety” Article 15 Part 4


When creating the legislative framework for the engine replacement operation, the authorities tried to simplify the process as much as possible. However, the reality turned out to be such that when performing registration actions at the traffic police, some pitfalls and subtleties began to emerge.

One of the nuances of the procedure is the moment of recycling the old engine. When importing a new motor from abroad, after the registration procedure, you will need to pay a recycling fee.

This nuance can be attributed to unexpected and unpleasant costs. The only good news is that the rule applies to engines imported into Russia after 09/01/2012.

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